Scaling-Up Bibliography

This bibliography includes publications, websites, grey literature, and conference reports that either directly address scaling up or provide valuable insights on scaling up. Included are materials from the health, development and education fields as well as selected pieces from vast literatures on the diffusion of innovation, technology or knowledge transfer, research or knowledge utilization, research dissemination, putting research into practice as well as literature from the policy, organization and management sciences.

The bibliographic entries are grouped into the below categories. Many contain links to the original material or a way to order it.

  • Scaling up theories, frameworks and concepts
  • Research utilization
  • Content-specific:
    • Health - general
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Malaria and tuberculosis
    • Reproductive health
  • Development
  • Education

* Indicates material added June 25, 2014.


African Youth Alliance. 2000. Scaling-Up.

Bradach J. 2004. "Going to Scale: The Challenge of Replicating Social Programs". Stanford Social Innovation Review, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Cooley, L and R. Kohl. 2005. "Scaling Up—From Vision to Large-scale Change: A Management Framework for Practitioners" Washington, D.C.: Management Systems International.

* Cooley L, R. Ved.  2012. “Scaling up - from vision to large-scale change: a management framework for practitioners, second edition,” Management Systems International (MSI), Washington DC.

Duflo, E. 2004. "Scaling Up and Evaluation". The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank.

Evans SH and Clark P. 2011. "Disseminating orphan innovations". Stanford Social Innovation Review. Winter 2011. Leland Stanford Junior University.

ExpandNet website/tools. 2005-2010. "Our tools" available at

Fixsen D, Naoom SF, Blase KA, et al. 2005. "Implementation Research: A Synthesis
of the Literature".
University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231).

Fraser, SW. 2007. "Undressing the Elephant: Why the spread of good practice isn’t working in healthcare; presenting symptoms and suggested treatment". Lulu Press.

Frost LJ, Reich M. 2008. "Access: How do good health technologies get to poor people in poor countries?" Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. FutureGenerations. The Future Generations Model for Community Change, and the FutureGenerations website Going to Scale.

Gaye PA, Nelson D. 2009. " Effective scale-up: Avoiding the same old traps." Human Resources for Health, 7:2.

Gericke, C. A., Kurowski, C., Ranson, M. K., & Mills, A. 2005. "Intervention Complexity: A Conceptual Framework to Inform Priority-setting in Health." Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83, 285-293.

Gilson l, Schneider H. 2010. "Commentary: Managing scaling up: what are the key issues?" Health Policy and Planning 25(2):97-98.

Gladwell, M. 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Glaser, E.M. 1983. "Putting Knowledge to Use: Facilitating the Diffusion of Knowledge and the Implementation of Planned Change". San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Gonsalves, J. 2000." Going to scale: can we bring more benefits to more people more quickly?" Workshop highlights presented by the CGIAR-NGO Committee and The Global Forum for Agricultural Research with BMZ (German Ministry of Development Corporation), MISEREOR (German Catholic Church Development Agency), Rockefeller Foundation, IRRI (International Rice Research Institute), and IIRR (International Institute of Rural Reconstruction). 10-14 April, IIRR , Philippines.

Gray J. 2010. "Global health experts seek to transform programs through implementation science". Fogarty International Center. Global Health Matters Newsletter, Volume 9, Issue 2.

Hartmann A, and Linn J. 2008. "Scaling up: A framework and lessons for development effectiveness from literature and practice" Wolfensohn Center for Development, Working Paper 5. The Brookings Instituion, Washington.

Hartmann A, and Linn J. 2008. "Scaling up through aid - The real challenge". Wolfensohn Center for Development Policy Brief. The Brookings Instituion, Washington.

Havelock RG. 1971. "Planning for Innovation through Dissemination and Utilization of Knowledge". Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge, Institute for Social Research.

Healthcare Improvement Project. 2011. "Improvement Collaboratives" webpage.

Howard-Grabman L, Snetro G. 2006." How to Mobilize Communities for Health and Social Change - Chapter Seven - Prepare to Scale Up". Washington, D.C. Save the Children.

Implementation Science. An open access, peer-reviewed online journal, since 2006.

Implementing Best Practices Consortium. 2007. "A guide for fostering change to scale up effective health services." Management Sciences for Health.

Janowitz B, Bratt J, Homan R, Foreit J. 2007. "How Much Will It Cost to Scale Up a Reproductive Health Pilot Project?" Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program Brief No. 8.

Johns, B. and T. TanTorres. 2005. "Costs of scaling up health interventions: a systematic review" Health Policy and Planning. 20: 1-13.

Johns, B. and Baltussen, R. 2004." Accounting for the Cost of Scaling-Up Health Interventions. Health Economics". Vol. 13, pp. 1117-1124.

Jowell, R. 2003. “Trying it out – the role of pilots in policy-making: Report of a review of government pilots.” Edinburgh, Scotland: National Centre for Social Research.

Madon T, KJ Hofman, L Kupfer, RI Glass. 2007. Public Health: Implementation Science. Science. 318(5857):1728-1729.

Mattina D. 2006. "Money Isn't Everything: The Challenge of Scaling Up Aid to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Ethiopia". IMF Working Paper, Vol. , pp. 1-34.

Mangham LJ, Hanson K. 2010. "Scaling up in international health: what are the key issues?" Health Policy and Planning, 25(2):85-96.

McCannon CJ, Berwick DM, Massoud, MR. 2007. "The Science of Large-Scale Change in Global Health" JAMA;298:1937-1939.

Mills A, Hanson K, eds. 2003. "Expanding Access to Health Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Constraints and Opportunities for Scaling-Up." Special issue, Journal of International Development, Volume 15 Issue 1 , Pages 1 - 131.

Myers, R.G. 1984. "Going to Scale". A paper prepared for UNICEF1 for the Second Inter-Agency Meeting on Community-based Child Development, New York, October 29-31, 1984.

Partners for Health ReformPlus. 2004. "The role of pilot programs: Approaches to health systems strengthening" Bethesda, MD. PHRPlus, Abt Associates.

Peters DH, El-Saharty S, Siadat B, et al, Eds. 2009. "Improving Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries: From Evidence to Action". World Bank, Washington DC.

Pyle, D.F. 1980. “From pilot project to operational program in India: The problems of transition.” In Politics and Policy Implementation in the Third World. Ed. Merilee Serrill Grindle. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Robb-McCord, J. and W. Voet. 2003. "Scaling up practices, tools, and approaches in the maternal and neonatal health program" Baltimore: JHPIEGO Corp.

Rogers, E.M. 1995. Diffusion of Innovations. Fourth Edition. New York: Free Press.

Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L, Eds. 2007. "Scaling up Health Service Delivery: From Pilot Innovations to Policies and Programmes". World Health Organization.

Uvin, P. 1995. “Fighting hunger at the grassroots: Paths to scaling up.” World Development: 23(6): 927-940.

Uvin, P. 1999. “Scaling up, scaling down: NGO paths to overcoming hunger.” In Scaling Up, Scaling Down - Overcoming Malnutrition in Developing Countries. Ed. Thomas J. Marchione. Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Uvin, P., Jain, P. S., & Brown, L. D. 2000. "Think Large and Act Small: Towards a New Paradigm for NGO Scaling Up." World Development, 28, 1409-1419.

Victora, C., K. Hanson, et al. (2004). "Achieving universal coverage with health interventions." The Lancet 364(9444): 1541-1548.

Wils, F. 1995. “Scaling-up, mainstreaming and accountability: The challenge for NGOs.” In Non-Governmental Organisations: Performance and Accountability beyond the Magic Bullet. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Earthscan.



Bero, L.A., R. Grilli, J.M. Grimshaw, E. Harvey, A.D. Oxman, and M.A. Thomson. 1998.Closing the gap between research and practice: An overview of systematic reviews of interventions to promote the implementation of research findings.” British Medical Journal 317(7156): 465-468.

Crewe, E. and J. Young. 2002. “Bridging Research and Policy: Context, Evidence and Links.” Overseas Development Institute Working Paper No. 173. London, England: Overseas Development Institute.

Davis, P. and P. Howden-Chapman. 1996. “Translating research findings into health policy.” Social Science and Medicine (43)5: 865-872.

Family Health International. 2003. Network: Research to Practice. Vol 23, No 1, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Haines A and Donald A. 1998. "Getting Research Findings into Practice: Using Research Findings in Clinical Practice". BMJ: 317:339-342 (1 August).

Hunt, S.M. 1993. “The relationship between research and policy: Translating knowledge into action.” In Healthy Cities: Research and Practice. Eds. John Davies and Michael Kelly. London, England: Routledge.

Marin, M.C., Gage, A., Khan, S. 2004.Frontiers in Reproductive Health Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Final Report, December, 2004.

Nutbeam, N. 1996. “Achieving ‘best practice’ in health promotion: Improving the fit between research and practice.” Health Education Research 11(3): 317-326.

Orosz, E. 1994.The impact of social science research on health policy.” Social Science and Medicine 39(9): 1287-93.

Population Council. Undated but estimated 2008. "Maximizing utilization of research". FRONTIERS in Reproductive Health Legacy Series.

Porter, R.W. and S. Prysor-Jones. 1997. “Making a Difference to Policies and Programs: A Guide for Researchers.” Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA Project), Academy for Educational Development, Washington DC: SARA.

Pronovost P, Berenholtz S, Needham D. 2008. "Translating evidence into practice: a model for large scale knowledge translation". BMJ, 337:a1714:963-965.

Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) website

Stone, D., S. Maxwell, and M. Keating. 2001. Bridging Research and Policy.” Background paper for International Workshop Bridging Research and Policy, Warwick University, England, 16-17 July. England: Overseas Development Institute.

Syed S, Hyder A, Bloom G, et al. 2008. "Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries". Health Research Policy and Systems, 6:4 doi:10.1186/1478-4505-6-4.

Walley J, Khan MA, Shah SK, Witter S, Xiaolin W. 2007. "How to get research into practice: first get practice into research". Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85 (6):424-5.

World Health Organization. 2006. "Bridging the 'Know-Do' Gap". Meeting on Knowledge Translation in Global Health, 10-12 October, 2005, Geneva, Switzerland.

World Health Organization. 2006. "Turning Research into Practice". suggested actions from case-studies of sexual and reproductive health research.




Awoonor-Williams JK, Feinglass ES, Tobey R, Vaughan-Smith MN, Nyonator FK, Jones TC. 2004. "Bridging the Gap Between Evidence-based Innovation and National Health-sector Reform in Ghana" Studies in Family Planning 35 (3), 161–177.

Bajpai N and Dholakia RH. 2006. "Scaling Up Primary Health Services in Rural Rajasthan: Public Investment Requirements and Policy Reform" CGSD Working Paper No. 32. Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, The Earth Institute at Columbia University.

Bennett, S & Paterson, M. 2003. "Piloting Health System Reforms: A Review of Experience." Technical Report No. 019. Bethesda, MD: The Partners for Health Reformplus Project, Abt Associates Inc.

Chopra, M. and Ford, N. 2005. "Scaling up health promotion interventions in the era of HIV/AIDS: challenges for a rights based approach". Oxford University Press: Health Promotion International, Vol 20, No. 4.

CORE. 2005. "Scale' and 'Scaling-Up'" A CORE Group Background Paper on Scaling-Up Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Services", July 11, 2005.

Gillespie D, Karklins S, Creanga A, Khan S, Cho NH. "Scaling Up Health Technologies: Report and Bibliography" 2007. The Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Global Health Workforce Alliance/World Health Organization. 2008. "Scaling up, Saving Lives". Task Force for Scaling Up Education and Training for Health Workers.

Huicho, L. , Davila M., Campos M., Drasbek C., Bryce J., and Victora CG. 2005. "Scaling up Integrated Management of Childhood Illness to the national level: achievements and challenges in Peru". Health Policy and Planning, 20: 14-24.

Kirk, E., Standing H. 2005. "Institutional issues in scaling up programmes for meeting the health related needs of the very poor." Institute of Development Studies,
University of Sussex, UK.

Knippenberg, R. et al. 2005. "Neonatal Survival 3: Systematic Scaling Up of Neonatal Care in Countries". The Lancet, Vol. 365, No. 9464, pg. 1087.

Lovell, C. and F.H. Abed. 1993. “Scaling-up in health: Two decades of learning in Bangladesh.” In Reaching Health for All. Eds. Jon Rohde, Meera Chatterjee, David Morley, and Stephen Marazzi. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

Management Sciences for Health (MSH). 2008. The Leadership, Management and Sustainability (LMS) Program website.

Mansour M, Mansour JB, El Swesy AH. 2010. "Scaling up proven public health interventions through a locally owned and sustained leadership development programme in rural Upper Egypt". Human Resources for Health, 8:1

Marchione TJ, Ed. 1999. “Scaling up, scaling down: overcoming malnutrition in developing countries.” Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Mills A and K Hanson, Eds. 2003. Expanding Access to Health Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Constraints and Opportunities for Scaling-Up. Journal of International Development Special Issue: Vol 15(1), Pages 1 - 131.

Myers, R.G. 1992. The Twelve Who Survive: Strengthening Programmes of Early Childhood Development in the Third World. London, England: UNESCO/Routledge.

Nyonator FK., Awoonor-Williams JK., Phillips JF., Jones TC, and Robert A Miller RA. 2005. "The Ghana Community-based Health Planning and Services Initiative for scaling up service delivery innovation" Health Policy and Planning, 20: 25-34.

Pelletier D, Corsi A, Hoey L, Houston R, Faillace S. 2010. "Program Assessment Guide". A2Z Project, AED, Washington, DC.

Pelletier D, Houston R, Faillace S. 2010. "Program Documentation Guide". A2Z Project, AED, Washington DC.

Petersen S. 2010. "Assessing the scale up of child survival interventions." The Lancet Volume 375, Issue 9714, Pages 530 - 531.

Phillips, J., R. Simmons, G. Simmons, and M. Yunus. 1984. “Transferring health and family planning services innovations to the public sector: An experiment in organization development in Bangladesh.” Studies in Family Planning 15(2): 62-73.

Pokhrel, S. 2006. "Scaling up health interventions in resource-poor countries: what role does research in stated-preference framework play?" Health Research Policy and Systems: Mar 30;4:4.

Poletti, T. et al. 2007. "The Desirability and Feasibility of Scaling Up Community Health Insurance in Low-Income Settings - Lessons From Armenia". Social Science & Medicine, Vol 64, pp.509-520..

Shiffman J. 2007. "Generating Political Priority for Public Health Causes in Developing Countries: Implications From a Study on Maternal Mortality". Center for Global Development Brief.

Snetro-Plewman G, Tapia M, Uccelani V, Brasington A, McNulty M. 2007. "Taking community empowerment to scale—Lessons from three successful experiences". (Health Communication Insights.) Baltimore: Health Communication Partnership based at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs.

Uvin, P. and D. Miller. 1994. "Scaling up: Thinking through the issues". The World Hunger Program.

Uvin, P. and D. Miller. 1996. “Paths to scaling-up: Alternative strategies for local nongovernmental organizations.” Human Organization 55(3): 344-354.

Uvin, P. 1996. “Scaling up the grassroots and scaling down the summit: the relations between third world NGOs and the UN.” In NGOs, the UN, and Global Governance. Eds. Thomas G. Weiss and Leon Gordenker. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, Inc.

Uvin, P. 1999. “Eliminating hunger after the end of the Cold War: Progress and constraints.” In Scaling Up, Scaling Down - Overcoming Malnutrition in Developing Countries. Ed. Thomas J. Marchione. Australia: Gordon and Breach.

Ved, R. 2009. "Scaling-up ICDS: Can Universalisation Address Persistent Malnutrition?". IDS Bulletin Volume 40(4):53-59.

Wazir, R. and N. van Oudenhoven. 1998. “Increasing the coverage of social programmes.” International Social Science Journal 50(155): 145-154.

World Health Organization. 2005. "Estimating the Cost of Scaling-up Maternal
and Newborn Health Interventions to Reach Universal Coverage: methodology and assumptions
. Technical Working Paper.




Attawell K. 2004. "Going to Scale in Ethiopia: Mobilizing Youth Participation in a National HIV/AIDS Program". Washington, D.C.: Social & Scientific Systems, Inc./The Synergy Project.

Bennet S, Boerma JT, and Brugha R. 2006. "Scaling up HIV/AIDS evaluation". The Lancet, Vol 367: 79-82.

Biesma R, Brugha R, Harmer A. 2009. "The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control". Health Policy and Planning 2009 24(4):239-252;

Binswanger, H.P. 2000. Scaling up HIV/AIDS Programs to National Coverage. Science, New Series, Vol 288, No. 5474. pp. 2173-2176.

Causey P. 2008. "Scaling up HIV programming for men who have sex
with men - the experience in Asia and the Pacific"
A report to the Global Forum on MSM & HIV. Asia Pacific Coalition on Male Sexual Health. Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations.

Cleary SM. 2010. "Commentary: Trade-offs in scaling up HIV treatment in South Africa". Health Policy and Planning 2010 25(2):99-101.

DeJong, J. 2001. “A question of scale? The challenge of increasing the scale of non-governmental organisations’ HIV/AIDS efforts in developing countries.” Horizons/Alliance Project on Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Programmes. Washington D.C.: Population Council.

DeJong, J. 2003. Making an Impact in HIV and AIDS: NGO Experiences of Scaling Up. London, England: Intermediate Technology Development Group Publishing.

Fitzgerald J, Dahl-Regis M, Gomez P, Del Riego A. 2005. "A Multidisciplinary Approach to Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care: The Experience of the Bahamas." Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 17, 66-72.

Global HIV Prevention Working Group. 2007. "Bringing HIV Prevention to Scale:
An Urgent Global Priority"

Hanefeld J, Musheke M. 2009. "What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia". Human Resources for Health, 7:8.

Harries, A., E. Schouten, et al. (2006). "Scaling up antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings." Lancet 367(9525): 1870-1872.

Helfenbein S and CA Severo. 2004. "Scaling up HIV/AIDS Programs: A manual for multisectoral planning". Management Sciences for Health.

Horizons Program, YRG CARE, and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance. 2004. "Expanding Care and Support in South India: Scaling Up YRG CARE’s Patient-Centered Approach,” Horizons Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Population Council.

Kober, K., Van Damme, W. 2004. "Scaling Up Access to Antiretroviral treatment in Southern Africa: Who Will Do the Job?" The Lancet, Vol 364, No. 9428, p 103.

Lowrance DW, Makombe SD,  Harries AD,  et al. 2008. “A Public Health Approach to Rapid Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Treatment in Malawi During 2004-2006”. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 3:287-293.

Management Sciences for Health (MSH). 2004. Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Programs. USA Agency for International Development (USAID).

Nsutebu, E.F., Walley, J.D., Mataka, E., and Simon, C.F. 2001. "Scaling-up HIV/AIDS and TB home-based care: lessons from Zambia". Health Policy and Planning; 16(3): 240-247.

Phillips, J., F. Nyonator, Barkat-e-Khuda, R. Miller, T.C. Jones, and S. Ravikumar. 2002. “Utilizing Field Experiments for Evidence-Based Health Program Development in Bangladesh and Ghana: Implications for HIV/AIDS Programs in resource constrained settings.” Paper presented at Global Conference on HIV/AIDS, Barcelona, Spain, July.

Phiri S, Foster G, Nzima M. "Expanding and strengthening community action: A study to explore ways to scale up effective, sustainable community mobilization interventions to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on children and families". Washington: Displaced Children and Orphans Fund of USAID, 2001.

Safe Youth Worldwide. 2005. "Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programs for Youth: The Essential Elements Framework in Action". New York: Margaret Sanger Center International.

Stephens, D. 2006. "Stigma, Scale-up, and Treatment Governance: Stumbling Block or Window of Opportunity?" United States Agency for International Development.

Van Damme W, Kober K, Kegels G. 2008. "Scaling-up antiretroviral treatment in Southern African countries with human resource shortage: How will health systems adapt?" Social Science & Medicine, 66: 2108-2121.

World Bank. 2004. "Scaling-up a Community-Driven HIV/AIDS Program in Malawi". SD Note No. 96 /October 2004. Social Development Notes - Community-driven Development.

World Health Organization. 2004. "An Approach to Rapid Scale-up: Using HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care as an Example". HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
Evidence and Information for Policy, World Health Organization, Geneva.

WHO, UNAIDS, UNICEF. 2008. "Towards Universal Access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector" WHO, UNAIDS and UNICEF Progress Report.



Magesa SM, Lengeler C, deSavigny D, Miller JE, Njau RJA, Kramer K, Kitua A, Mwita A. 2005. "Creating an "enabling environment" for taking insecticide treated nets to national scale: the Tanzanian experience" Malaria Journal, 4:34.

Roll Back Malaria/Working Group for Scaling-up Insecticide-treated Netting. 2005. "Scaling up Insectide-treated netting Programs in Africa". Geneva, World Health Organization.

Nsutebu, E.F., Walley, J.D., Mataka, E., and Simon, C.F. 2001. "Scaling-up HIV/AIDS and TB home-based care: lessons from Zambia". Health Policy and Planning; 16(3): 240-247.



Advance Africa, 2001. Scaling-up Family Planning and Reproductive Health Programs: Resources and Publications.

Askew I and Evelia H. 2007. "Mainstreaming and Scaling Up the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project". Frontiers Project, Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya.

Askew, I., Matthews, Z., Partridge, R. 2001. “Going Beyond Research: A key issues paper raising discussion points related to dissemination, utilisation and impact of reproductive and sexual health research”, from the Moving Beyond Research to Influence Policy Workshop, January 23-24, 2001, University of Southampton.

Billings DL, Crane BB, Benson J, Solo J, Fetters T. 2007. "Scaling-up a public health innovation: A comparative study of post-abortion care in Bolivia and Mexico". Social Science and Medicine, 64(11):2210-22.

Family Health International/YouthNet. 2006. "The Role of Community Involvement in Improving Reproductive Health and Preventing HIV among Young People - Report of a Technical Consultation". November 8-9, 2005. (Scaling Up Programs, P. 26).

Frontiers in Reproductive Health. 2005. "Building National Capacity to Delivery Emergency Contraception Services in Bangladesh". New Dehli, India: Population Council.

Haaga, J. and R. Maru. 1996. “The effect of operations research on program changes in Bangladesh.” Studies in Family Planning 27(2): 76-87.

Huntington, D. and L. Nawar. 2003. “Moving from research to program: The Egyptian postabortion care initiative.” International Family Planning Perspectives 29(3): 121-125.

Koblinsky, M. et al. 2006. "Going to scale with professional skilled care." The Lancet, Vol. 368: 1377-86.

MacDonagh, S. 2005. "Achieving skilled attendance for all; a synthesis of current knowledge and recommended actions for scaling up" DFID Health Resource Centre, London, England.

Management Sciences for Health (MSH). 2002. "Ten dimensions of scaling up reproductive health programs: an introduction". USA Agency for International Development (USAID).

Martin, A., M. McEvoy, and J.W. Townsend. 1991. “Approaches to strengthening the utilization of OR results: Dissemination.” In Operations Research: Helping Family Planning Programs Work Better. Eds. Marjorie Horn and Myrna Seidman. New York: Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Simmons, R., J.W. Brown, and M. Díaz. 2002. “Facilitating large scale transitions to quality of care in family planning programs: An idea whose time has come.” Studies in Family Planning 33(1): 61-75.

Smith, J. and C. Colvin. 2000. “Getting to scale in young adult reproductive health programs.” Focus on Young Adults 2000. Focus Tool Series 3, Futures Group International.

Tall Thiam, F., Suh, S., Moreira, P. 2006. "Scaling Up Postabortion Care Services: Results from Senegal". Cambridge, MA: MSH Occasional Paper No. 5.



Binswanger, H.P, and Aiyar, S.S. 2003. Scaling Up Community Driven Development Theoretical Underpinnings and Program Design Implications. Mimeo. The World Bank.

Chambers, R. 1992. “Spreading and self-improving: A strategy for scaling-up.” In Making a difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Save the Children/Earthscan.

Chambers R. 2009. "Going to Scale with Community-Led Total Sanitation: Reflections on Experience, Issues and Ways Forward". Institute of Development Studies. Sussex, England.

Chapman, K. 2005. "Using Social Transfers to Scale Up Equitable Access to Education and Health Services" Background Paper, DFID Policy Division.

Clark, J. 1991. Democratizing Development. London, England: Earthscan.

Clark, J. 1992. “Policy influence, lobbying and advocacy.” In Making a difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Save the Children/Earthscan.

Davis, D. (2004). "Scaling-Up Action Research Project, Phase One: Lessons from Six Case Studies." CDD Scaling Up Action Research Workshop at the World Bank, Washington DC.

Degrande, A., Kanmegne, J., Tchoundjeu, Z., Mpeck, M., Sado, T., & Tsobeng, A. 2006, November. "Mechanisms for scaling-up tree domestication: how grassroots organizations become agents of change." Paper presented at the Innovation Africa Symposium, Kampala.

Denning, G. L. 2001. "Realising the Potential of Agroforestry: Integrating Research and Development to Achieve Greater Impact." Development in Practice, 11(4), 407-416.

Edwards, M. and D. Hulme. 1992. “Scaling-up the developmental impact of NGOs: Concepts and experiences.” In Making a difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World. Eds. Michael Edwards and David Hulme. London, England: Save the Children/Earthscan.

Franzel, S., Cooper, P., & Denning, G. L. 2001. "Scaling Up the Benefits of Agroforestry Research: Lessons Learned and Research Challenges." Development in Practice, 11(4), 524-534

Guendel, S., J. Hancock, and S. Anderson. 2001. "Scaling-up Strategies for Research in Natural Resources Management: A Comparative Review". Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.

Gillespie, S. 2004. "Scaling Up Community-Driven Development: A Synthesis of Experience". Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Hartmann A, and Linn J. 2007. "Scaling up: A path to effective development" 2020 FOCUS BRIEF on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. Washington, DC: IFPRI.

Korten, D.C. and R. Klauss. 1984. People-Centered Development. West Harford, Connecticut: Kumarian Press.

Menter, H., Kaaria, S., Johnson, N., & Ashby, J. (n.d.). Scaling Up. In Scaling Up and Out: Achieving Widespread Impact Through Agricultural Research (pp. 9-23). Cali, Columbia: International Center for Tropical Agriculture.

Picciotto, R. 2004. “Scaling Up: A Development Strategy For the new Millennium" in Economic Integration and Social Responsibility, Bourguignon F. et al (eds) World bank Washington Developing Countries.

World Bank. 2003. "Scaling-up the impact of good practices in rural development: A working paper to support implementation of the World Bank’s Rural Development Strategy". Report Number 26031. Agriculture and Rural Development Department.

World Bank. 2004. "Scaling up Poverty Reduction: Case studies of microfinance". Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/World Bank.

World Bank. 2005. "Global Monitoring Report - Millennium Development Goals: From Consensus to Momentum. Chapter 3 - Scaling Up Service Delivery."



Coburn, C. 2003. "Rethinking Scale: Moving Beyond Numbers to Deep and Lasting Change." Educational Researcher, 32(6), 3.

Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., Masiello, T., & McInerney, M. 2006. "Scaling Up Early Childhood Intervention Literacy Learning Practices." Center for Early Literacy Learning (CELL) Papers, 1(2), 1-10.

Environmental Leadership Program. 2007 "Alumni Newsletter focused on Scaling up". College of Natural Resources, University of California Berkeley.

Jowers, K. L., Bradshaw, C. P., & Gately, S. 2007. "Taking School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention to Scale: District-Wide Implementation of Keep a Clear Mind." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 51(3), 73-91.

Klein, S. P., McArthur, D. J., & Stecher, B. M. 1995." What are the Challenges to ‘Scaling Up’ Reform." Joining Forces: Spreading Strategies, Proceedings of the Invitational Conference on Systemic Reform (pp. 71-80). Washington D.C.: Department of Education.

National Implementation Research Network (NIRN). Website.

Samoff, J., Sebatane, E. M., & Dembélé, M. 2001. "Scaling Up by Focusing Down: Creating Space to Expand Education Reform." In ADEA Biennial Meeting. Arusha,Tanzania.

State Implementation & Scaling-up of Evidence-based Practices (SISEP). Website.

Taylor, L., Nelson, P., & Adelman, H. S. 1999. "Scaling-Up Reforms Across a School District." Reading & Writing Quarterly, 15(4), 303-325.








International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, 2000.

ExpandNet / WHO book on scaling up


International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, 2000.


Edwards, M. and D. Hulme, 1992


Fixsen et al, 2005


Turning Research into Practice, WHO , 2006


Partners for Health ReformPlus. 2004